Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (HIRA) is the basis of any risk management plan. A risk assessment forms the first two parts of your safety management system.
The OHS Act defines a hazard as a source of or exposure to danger. It can further be said that a hazard is a condition, activity, object (material) or substance that has the ability to cause harm in certain circumstances.
Risk is the chance or likelihood of a hazard causing harm to a person, to property or the environment. The extend of the risk depends not only on the severity of potential harm to a person or the environment but also on other factors such as the number of people exposed, etc. Hazard Is that which has the potential to source harm, Risk is the actual harm that may occur as a result.
There are three types of risk assessments, baseline, issue-based and continuous risk assessments.
Baseline risk assessments:
The baseline risk assessment is done to determine the risk for the first time, i.e. to establish a broad-based risk profile. Depending on the results of the baseline risk assessment specific aspects or issues will be highlighted. The baseline risk assessment must be reviewed on regular intervals to re-establish the baseline profile as to minimize the risks in the organization.
Issue-based risk assessments
This is when baseline risk assessments are assessed in far more detail using the appropriate issue-based risk assessment techniques such as HAZOP, FMEA, Fault Tree Analysis, etc.
An issue-based risk assessment will be performed due to highlighted aspects or issues, new processes, new machines or the ongoing risk assessments in an organization.
Continuous risk assessments
These risk assessments are part of all forms formal and informal inspections and observations that take place daily or on regular intervals.